34 – Viabilidade do uso de biogás de ete para alimentação de células a combustível
Waste treatment by anaerobic digestion process converts part of the organic matter in biogas, composed principally of carbon dioxide and methane. Even diluted in the biogas, the methane can be converted in electric energy through the straight combustion in motors and turbines or for the conversion in fuel cells, who present advantages for his great efficiency and easiness of operation. They are differentiated of the conventional technologies based on the combustion by the least emission of pollutants and bigger energetic efficiency. At present, at least 1.700 m³ CH4/day was produced in the ETE Atuba Sul suffers a process of combustion in burners, aiming at the emission of C02 and consequent reduction of the emission of methane of the ETE. In spite of this reduction in the environmental impact, the biogas composed by 60,6 % of methane, is wasted instead of being used for the generation of electric energy and heat in the ETE itself. At this work there is valued the technical and economical viability of a commercial plant of fuel cells of phosphoric acid of 200 kW, for supply of electric and thermal energy, with total efficiency of up to 70 %, to the ETE Atuba Sul, from biogas of the anaerobic digestion. The samples of biogas were analyzed by the chromatography technique to gas. There were adopted theoretical and practical estimates of production of methane, from literary fountains and for the measurement of the biogas flow with the digital anemometer, respectively. There was lifted the profile of consumption of electric energy of the ETE Atuba Sul and there were analyzed the means of use of the thermal energy. The analysis of the technical viability was obtained according to the values of VPL, TIR, TMA and Payback. Use of biogas and fuel cells for energy generation makes feasible self-generation, enables distributed electric power, reduces operation costs of wastewater treatment plant and allows the efficient use of biogas, a natural resource that favors sustainable development. The results demonstrate that the cost of produced alternative energy is competitive and that the adaptation of the plant is viable.
Data da defesa: 23/11/2009
Orientador: Mauricio Pereira Cantão (Lactec)
Membro da Banca: Patricio Rodolfo Impinnisi (Lactec)
Membro da Banca: Maria Alessandra Mendes (Lactec)
Membro da Banca: Miguel Mansur Aisse (UFPR)
Membro da Banca: Cleverson Vitorio Andreoli (UNIFAE)
Palavra(s)-Chave: Tratamento de esgoto; Biogás; Energia elétrica; Células a combustível; Geração distribuída de energia; Viabilidade técnica e econômica.
Keywords: Sewage treatment; Biogas; Electricity; Fuel cells; Distributed generation of energy; Technical and economic feasibility.